This introduces an interesting but obscure chapter in history, straddling Spain and France and consequently tending to be left by treatments of Spain to French history, and by treatments of France to Spanish history. Not all of it was ultimately retained by Spain, but readily accessible sources don’t seem to show either the difference between the old and new boundaries or what happened to the rulers of Navarre after the annexation — the table at right picks up at that point. This seems like a grave oversight for the history of France. The history of Navarre is obscure enough that I found the full genealogy only with recourse to a succession of more serious and complete sources. Family trees for the Bourbons, such as given here , almost never go back further than the father, Henry, of Henry IV’s mother Jeanne. Brian Tompsett’s Royal and Noble genealogy originally enabled me to fill in the gaps, but there are some obscurities and questions in the information of both Tompsett and Hay that I had to compare with other sources. Feldkamp [Philipp Reclam, Stuttgart, , pp. Fischer Verlag, , p. A less esoteric source with a complete list of kings is in the Oxford Dynasties of the World [John E. Morby, Oxford, , pp.

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Christian or really Pagan? While such idealisation of Christianity can be expected from clerics and true believers in the faith, there have been other voices who see a European identity defined through Christianity as useful even if its not actually true. Even staunchly secular anti-clerical France has not been immune from pushing the importance of faith.

These become more than just intellectual gymnastics when right-wing extremist Anders Breivik Anders Breivik killed 77 people in a horrific carnage in Norway. It should serve as the uniting symbol for all Europeans whether they are agnostic or atheists.

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For a critical Christian response to these claims, see: The ancient polytheistic religions of Egypt, Persia, Babylonia and eventually Rome increasingly consolidated their pantheons of deities under a single primary god, usually a Sun-god. Humans could choose between good light or evil darkness and on judgment day be sent to Heaven or Hell based on their choices. Mithras was identified as the redeemer prophesied by Zoroaster: As an adult, Mithras healed the sick, made the lame walk, gave sight to the blind and raised the dead.

Before returning to heaven at the Spring Equinox Mithras had a last supper with 12 disciples representing the 12 signs of the Zodiac.

THE INTERNET GUIDE TO SCOTLAND

Isle of Iona Photo – buy at AllPosters. As such, this tiny island 1 mile wide, 3. If you want to feel its magic, the best time to be on Iona is either early in the morning or in the evening to avoid the hundreds of day-trippers who pour off the ferry every day. If the area around the Abbey gets too busy for you, then find one of Iona’s sandy beaches and relax. The south and western parts of the island are not so well visited, but well worth seeing. It runs back and forth throughout the day and takes 5 minutes.

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Mithras is often represented as carrying a lamb on his shoulders, just as Jesus is. Midnight services were found in both religions. Petra, the sacred rock of Mithraism, became Peter, the foundation of the Christian Church. Itu derivative of Mitu or Mitra is considered as the Vegetation-deity. It is said that Mithra or [the] Sun took birth in the Cave on December 25th.

He travelled far and wide. He has twelve satellites, which are taken as the Sun’s disciples His symbol is the Lamb The worship of the Indo-Persian god Mithra dates back centuries to millennia preceding the common era. The god is found as “Mitra” in the Indian Vedic religion, which is over 3, years old, by conservative estimates. When the Iranians separated from their Indian brethren, Mitra became known as “Mithra” or “Mihr,” as he is also called in Persian.

Mithra: The Pagan Christ

And they besought that they might behold the face of Christ. And the saint said to them: Patrick entered on the special work of the conversion of Ulster. Under the following year, the ancient annalists relate a wonderful spread of the Faith throughout the province. In a site for a church was granted at Armagh by Daire, the chieftain of the district. It was in a valley at the foot of a hill, but the saint was not content.

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Share Paganism, in the broadest sense includes all religions other than the true one revealed by God, and, in a narrower sense, all except Christianity, Judaism, and Mohammedanism. The term is also used as the equivalent of Polytheism. It is derived from the Latin pagus , whence pagani i. Various forms of Paganism are described in special articles e. Brahminism, Buddhism, Mithraism ; the present article deals only with certain aspects of Paganism in general which will be helpful in studying its details and in judging its value.

We do not propose to discuss, theologically, philosophically, or even historically, the underlying unity, or universal originating cause, of all religions, if any such there be. History as a matter of fact presents us in each case with a religion already existing, and in a more or less complicated form. Somewhere or other, some one of the human elements offered as universal, necessary, and sufficient germ of the developed religion, can, of course, be found.

But we would point out that, in the long run, this element was not rarely a cause of degeneration, not progress; of lower forms of cult and creed, not pure Monotheism.

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Novelty candy shaped like skulls, pumpkins, bats, worms, etc. Small bags of potato chips, pretzels and caramel corn Chocolates, caramels, and gum Pumpkin and Apple pie ice cream are sometimes enjoyed Around the World Halloween is not celebrated in all countries and regions of the world, and among those that do the traditions and importance of the celebration vary significantly. Celebration in the United States has had a significant impact on how the holiday is observed in other nations.

The history of Halloween traditions in a given country also lends context to how it is presently celebrated. Celtic Christians may have Samhain services that focus on the cultural aspects of the holiday, in the belief that many ancient Celtic customs are “incompatible with the new Christian religion. Christianity embraced the Celtic notions of family, community, the bond among all people, and respect for the dead.

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In Gaelic poetry Scone’s association with kings and king-making gave it various poetic epithets, for instance, Scoine sciath-airde, “Scone of the High Shields”, and Scoine sciath-bhinne, “Scone of the Noisy Shields”. In either or King Malcolm IV described Scone Abbey as in principali sede regni nostri, “in the principal seat of our kingdom”. The king also ruled in Lothian , Strathclyde and the Honour of Huntingdon , and spent much of his time in these localities too.

Moreover, the king was itinerant and had little permanent bureaucracy, so that any idea that Scone was a “capital” in the way the word is used today can make very little sense in this period. But in the medieval sense Scone can in many ways be called the “capital of Scotland” and was often referred to as “the Royal City of Scone”. Many comparisons can be drawn between the City of Westminster and the “City” of Scone. Both were medieval epicenters of Royal power.

Mithra: The Pagan Christ

Speaking to The Independent, Dr Watt said: Her U-turn on social care will seem trivial by comparison. In the letter, seen by The Independent and sent to Christine Dalby, the acting head of representation of the European Commission in London, Dr Watt sets out the aim of a prospective application for a judicial review.

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The earliest references to it are in the form of month names, where the Yule-tide period lasts somewhere around two months in length, falling along the end of the modern calendar year between what is now mid-November and early January. One of the names provided is “Yule-beings”. The saga states that when Haakon arrived in Norway he was confirmed a Christian, but since the land was still altogether heathen and the people retained their pagan practices, Haakon hid his Christianity to receive the help of the “great chieftains”.

In time, Haakon had a law passed establishing that Yule celebrations were to take place at the same time as the Christians celebrated Christmas, “and at that time everyone was to have ale for the celebration with a measure of grain, or else pay fines, and had to keep the holiday while the ale lasted. Haakon planned that when he had solidly established himself and held power over the whole country, he would then “have the gospel preached”.

According to the saga, the result was that his popularity caused many to allow themselves to be baptised, and some people stopped making sacrifices. Haakon spent most of this time in Trondheim.

THE INTERNET GUIDE TO SCOTLAND

A radical scheme to give every citizen a universal basic income UBI , regardless of whether or not they work, is set to be piloted by two Scottish councils this year. Labour-run Glasgow and Fife councils are designing trial schemes following meetings held late last year. It has not yet been announced what level the basic income will be set at, but the councils are to proceed with the pilots, subject to sufficient funding being secured. Any money earned above this is subject to taxation.

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This page is sponsored by: Find your favorite costumes here The Real Origins of Halloween discusses the history of Halloween, the origins of trick-or-treating, reasons behind some of the symbols of the season, and why the holiday is well worth keeping and celebrating. Previous versions of this essay specifically contrasted the historical evidence with the absurd claims and urban legends used in most anti-Halloween propaganda.

I have now put those latter materials into their own essay, Halloween Errors and Lies , since it seems that many people have never seen or heard those fearmongering tales and could not understand why I would spend so much space discussing them within an historical essay. This is a work of amateur scholarship. If you wish to quote me in an academic environment, you may wish to first verify my statements by consulting the books linked within my text.

If you prefer black text on white, you can click here for a more easily printed or for some folks, more easily read edition of this specific essay. For information about the specific topic of Witchcraft, consider obtaining my book, Bonewits’s Essential Guide to Witchcraft and Wicca. There appear to have been four major holy days celebrated by the Paleopagan Druids, possibly throughout the Celtic territories: The most common practice for the calculation of Samhain, Oimelc, Beltane and Lughnasadh has been, for the last several centuries, to use the civil calendar days or eves of November 1st, February 1st, May 1st and August 1st, respectively.

Scone, Scotland

It is one of the most famous and valuable illuminated manuscripts to have survived to modern times. The Book of Kells derives its name from the Irish village of Kells, located northwest of Dublin, where the book was kept in the monastery for several hundred years. The Book of Kells is one of many Gospel manuscripts written from the late sixth century to the early ninth century in the monasteries in Scotland, northern England, and Ireland.

The Book of Kells was produced late in this period, perhaps around the beginning of the ninth century, and represents the high point in writing these artistic manuscripts. The monks designing the book of Kells and Lindisfarne were exposed to Viking art by the brutal and constant raiding of their monasteries by the Vikings. Though Viking art was foreign to them its design elements were incorporated in to both the books of Kells, Lindisfarne and others.

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DuBois said Old Norse religion and other pre-Christian belief systems in Northern Europe must be viewed as “not as isolated, mutually exclusive language-bound entities, but as broad concepts shared across cultural and linguistic lines, conditioned by similar ecological factors and protracted economic and cultural ties”. Many skaldic verses are preserved in sagas. Of the originally heathen works, we cannot know what changes took place either during oral transmission or as a result of their being recorded by Christians; [38] [39] the sagas of Icelanders , in particular, are now regarded by most scholars as more or less historical fiction rather than as detailed historical records.

In the Middle Ages, several Christian commentators also wrote about Scandinavian paganism, mostly from a hostile perspective. Theophoric place-names, including instances where a pair of deity names occur in close proximity, provide an indication of the importance of the cult of those deities in different areas, dating back to before our earliest written sources. Magnus Olsen developed a typology of such place-names in Norway, from which he posited a development in pagan worship from groves and fields toward the use of temple buildings.

It may have had links to Nordic Bronze Age: Some of these areas, such as Iceland, the Orkneys, Shetland, and the Faroe Island, were hardly populated, whereas other areas, such as England, Scotland, the Western Isles, Isle of Man, and Ireland, were already heavily populated. Christianization of Scandinavia The Nordic world first encountered Christianity through its settlements in the already Christian British Isles and through trade contacts with the eastern Christians in Novgorod and Byzantium.

On returning to Norway, he kept his faith largely private but encouraged Christian priests to preach among the population; some pagans were angered and—according to Heimskringla —three churches built near Trondheim were burned down.

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